Poisoning is also referred to as toxicosis or intoxication. Pets are unable to distinguish between harmful substances and are unable to know if a substance is harmless, harmful or poisonous.
Poisoning though occurs when a substance that is toxic to them, is swallowed, inhaled, absorbed through organs such as the skin, eyes or mucous membranes or even the paws. Pets can also be easily poisoned after a single exposure to a harmful substance. Poisoning can also occur after repeated exposure to a substance harmful and poisonous to them.
All toxic effects depend on the lethal dose and the amount of the harmful substance present. Symptoms to poison develop also in close relation to the exposure. Absorption of a poison is necessary for systemic poisoning.
1.1 Corrosive substances
In contradiction to poison, chemical substances described as corrosive substances, will destroy tissue but might not absorb through the skin.
Common corrosives are either strong acids, strong bases, or concentrated solutions of acids or bases. They can exist as any form such as liquids, solids, gases, mists or vapours.
1.2 Chemical substances
In warfare, chemical substances are constructed to act as deadly nerve agents. A well-known chemical substance is the “VX nerve agent.”
Nerve agents are the most toxic and fast-acting substance known in chemical warfare, according to the US Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
1.3 Difference between humans and animals
Humans and animals differ insofar their ability to be in danger when exposed to different products and household substances, due to the notable metabolic differences between animals and humans.
Metabolism or metabolic actions are the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of living organisms.
1.4 Metabolic actions within the body has three main purposes;
The dosages and the different strengths of food, fuel, substances vary considerably between species. Humans and animals react therefore through their metabolic differences, differently to chemicals and products or foods. Even in their own species. An example to this is the Ivermectin group of chemicals used in anthelmintic control in pets and farm animals. Ivermectin is lethal to the Collie breed of herd and sheep dogs.
Many food and other substances are fine with humans, but lethal to pets. It can cause organ failure and or shock. A small dose of poison may be undetectable and have no harmful effects. Large dose of poison can be fatal.
2. How do animals get poisoned?
2.1 Poison, toxins and venom
In biology, poisons can be labelled as elements that cause disorders in and to living organisms. In veterinary medicine and zoology, poisons are categorised as poisons, toxins and venom. Their activity is usually on a molecular scale. The mode of action with poison is usually via chemical reaction in the bloodstream of the victim, affecting vital organs such as the heart, lungs, kidneys in the organism’s body.
2.2 Delivery method
The difference between venom and other poisons are the delivery method.
Are poisonous substances constructed to control specific living organisms such as pests on crop such as cotton and maize, weed control in crops, flies in dairy’s and laughter houses, rats in the home, cockroaches, ticks and fleas etc.
Anthelmintics are antiparasitic drugs designed to expel parasitic worms and internal parasites from their hosts body, by either disturbing their parasitic mode of blood sucking, by stunning enzymes or nerves vital to their mode of blood sucking, or affecting their metabolism, or killing them in ways without causing noteworthy damage to the host.
Dogs, with their enormous ability to smell, explore what they smell and the places they do smell these things that tickle their curiosity. of interest. Their curiosity might lead them to explore harmful substances or dangerous places such as bushes, wood piles, storage areas, dump sites or holes. Their smelling ability and curiosity leads them to insects excreting pheromones, or to smelly material with bacteria and organisms hiding in bait, dead animals or toxin plants.
It is very possible that the exact cause of poisoning will never be known.
4.1 Malicious poisoning
In South Africa, intentional and malicious poisoning of especially dogs and cats is a factor to reckon with and is perhaps more famous than unintentional poisoning. Malicious poisoning usually is with rat poisons or a plant poison known here as Temik.
4.2 General treatment of poison
It is in all cases important to determine what substance the animal is poisoned with. If the substance is unknown, it is important to induce vomiting soonest possible.
4.3 Do not induce vomiting if;
4.5 Products where vomiting should never be induced
There are two groups of chemicals where vomiting should never be induced. The products, when ingested injures the mouth, cause blister like wounds to the oesophagus and stomach. Severe cases cause perforations of the stomach and muscle tissue of the oesophagus.
4.5.1 Corrosive and caustic chemicals
This group are the acids and alkalis which are found in general household cleaners. They are toilet bowl cleaners, dishwashing liquids, washing detergents, anti-rust mixtures, fat removers, alkaline batteries, drain cleaners and many other commercial solvents.
4.5.2 Petroleum Products
This group can be categorised as petrol, diesel, kerosene and turpentine. They cause pneumonia when inhaled. They also gastrointestinal upset. Petroleum products are very irritating to the skin and must be washed of as quickly as possible with luke warm water and soap. Wash the mouth with water to remove petroleum deposits.
5. Steps to Induce Vomiting
Vomiting has one important goal in mind. That is to prevent poison absorption. Vomiting focus on poison that was swallowed.
5.1 Step 1:
There are ways to induce forced vomiting. Option 1 is preferred above option 2.
Option 1: Induce vomiting is by administrating with a sterile syringe, a 3% hydrogen peroxide solution per kg weight as follow;
Administer with a syringe a solution of 1 tablespoon of washing power, diluted in one 250 ml cup of luke-warm water.
5.2 Step 2
Step 2 has also two options. Activated charcoal and egg white solution
5.2.1 Activated Charcoal
5. 2.2 Egg white solution
Poison intake can cause seizures and seizures can cause lengthy periods of hypoxia.
Hypoxia is a condition whereby the body, a region of the body, is deprived from receiving enough or the adequate oxygen supply at tissue level. Oxygen at adequate levels to the heart and bran, to tissue is a serious matter and inadequate supplies will result in potential brain damage.
6.1 Seizures and epilepsy
Seizures caused by poisons that stimulate responses from the central nervous system, such as alkaloids, i.e. strychnine, may cause confusion and the result may be a judgement mistakenly for epilepsy.
With poison, immediate emergency is needed and thereafter veterinary treatment. Especially in the case of “Temik”, also known as “Two-step,” Where Atropine needs to be administered by the veterinarian intravenously.
Atropine is used to reduce saliva and fluid in the respiratory tract that could cause hypoxia.
There is a true difference between epileptic seizures and seizures causes by poison. Seizures caused by poison return usually as a norm within minutes. It distinguishes itself from epilepsy by exhibit tremors, lack of coordination, weakness, abdominal pain, and diarrhoea.
In the case of epilepsy, seizures are brief, seldom last more than two minutes and is followed by a quiet period in which the dog appears disorientated, but otherwise normal.
7. Contact Poisons
In situations where animals are exposed to poisonous substances;
8. Drug poisons
8.1 Human drugs
Many people administer “over the counter” human drugs and medicines, even prescription drugs to their pets to treat a variety of symptoms.
This is a very dangerous practise. Human drugs are in general extremely toxic to pets because they do not have the same metabolic enzymes to detoxify and break down these drugs within the liver, bloodstream or kidneys.
It may seem to be harmless after it is being administered, but it is far from the truth. It leads to an accumulation of dangerous substances that hides somewhere in the storage places of the body, as the body nor the immune system recognise these foreign particles or know how to deal with them.
Severe and sudden organ damage can happen because of this. Symptoms develop quickly, after the body’s ability to sustain these chemicals are over extended. Symptoms include abdominal pain, salivation, vomiting, and weakness.
Human drugs that produce a variety of toxic effects are birth control pills, hormone prescriptions, antihistamines, sleeping pills, diet pills, heart pill, blood pressure pills and vitamins.
Treatment: If you suspect your pet has swallowed any drug, induce vomiting immediately.
8.2 Veterinary drugs
Many drug poisoning occur with veterinary prescription drugs. Veterinary products are also often filled with attractive flavourings to encourage the intake of the drug. There is no such thing as safe medicine of a safe drug.
Prevention: Accidental poisoning can be prevented Store all drugs in a secure place to prevent inadvertent consumption by pets and children. Never assume that a human drug is safe for pets!
9. Rat and rodent poisons
Rat and rodent poisons consists of
Anticoagulants are referred to in general as blood thinners. It consists of substances that prevent the coagulation of blood and or prolongs the time of blood clotting. In Nature, anticoagulants occurs in blood-sucking animals such as ticks, leeches and mosquitoes. Anticoagulants keeps the blood thin and unclotted for as long as the blood sucking parasite needs in his blood meal to suck blood.
In human medicine, anticoagulants are used in therapy for thrombotic disorders. Disprin tablets are used in many instances.
In rodent poisons, the function of anticoagulants in this poison is to block the synthesis of vitamin K, which is an essential vitamin in normal blood clotting.
9.2 Vitamin K deficiency
Vitamin K deficiency, caused by anticoagulants in rat poison, will result in various spontaneous bleedings in the poisoned animal. Dogs will become weak and pale from blood loss and the physical signs would be;
Vitamin Kl is therefore with anticoagulants a specific antidote. It is given by subcutaneous injection and repeated subcutaneously or orally as necessary until clotting time returns to normal.
With first-generation anticoagulants, bleeding often occurs within a week. With long-acting anticoagulants, treatment takes up to a month because of the length of time the poison remains in the dog’s system.
9.3 Different anticoagulants generations
Literature refer to three generations of anticoagulants. The second group are closely related to group three.
9.3.1 The first group or generation is known as cumulative poisons. The rodent needs to feed a few times from the bait before it will kill the rodent. These poisons contain the anticoagulants warfarin and hydroxycoumadin.
Anticoagulants are not only to be found in rodent poisons. It is also available in many household products. Anticoagulants are:
9.3.2 The second generation of anticoagulants kills the animal after one single feeding. They contain bromadiolone and brodifacoum. These poisons are 50 to 200 times more toxic than warfarin and hydroxycoumadin.
These products are extremely dangerous to pets. It will therefore be able to kill a small dog, if it eats the dead rodent, with the left over residual poison in its stomach. Closely related to the second-generation of anticoagulants, are the extremely toxic long acting anticoagulants of the “Indanedione” class.
9.3.2 Treatment of anticoagulants
9.2 Hypercalcaemic agents.
Hypercalcemic agent poisoning is a highly poisonous substance consisting of toxic levels of calcium, containing Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol). This substance is a popular substance in rat poison. It could also be found many other environmental and home-use substances. Hypercalcaemic agents are a very popular agent because rodents do not develop resistance to them.
Occasionally, with exception of smaller dogs, dogs who eat poisoned rats will not develop any sign of illness or any toxicity. In almost all cases, the dog must eat the poison itself to become poisoned and ill.
Hypercalcemic poisons are toxic to all the dog’s tissues. The nervous and cardiovascular systems are targeted, with the greatest harm done to the kidneys. Vitamin D3 is used in human supplements as a dietary additive. Vitamin D act as the hypercalcemic agent in rodent poison. It raises the calcium content in the blood serum to toxic levels which can lead to cardiac arrhythmias and death.
Hypercalcaemic agents are developed to release extreme high levels of calcium in the blood. These substances contain vitamin D, developed to raise the calcium content in the blood to extreme levels of toxicity. Elevated levels of serum calcium may persist for weeks.
High levels of calcium are extremely poisonous to all canines. In rat and rodent poisons, it is used as a bait. Dogs poisoned by hypercalcemic agents show signs of;
9.4 Signs of ingestion
When ingested by dogs, signs of hypercalcemia appear between 18 to 36 hours after ingesting. It includes;
It is important to correct the fluid levels and electrolyte imbalances in dogs and lowering calcium levels using diuretics, prednisone, oral phosphorus binders, and a low-calcium prescription diet. Calcitonin is a specific antidote, but it is difficult to obtain and has only short-term effects.
There are two generations of antifreeze.
10.1 Glycol ethylene
The older generation of antifreeze contains glycol ethylene. It has a sweet aroma that appeals to dogs and will tempt them to drink the product. Antifreeze exposure happens when it is spilled or leaked in garages, smashed cars in scrapyards, home operations and wherever antifreeze is used in a careless way.
Glycol ethylene primarily affects the brain and the kidneys.
10.4 Polyethylene glycol
A newer generation of antifreeze contains propylene glycol and not ethylene glycol, which is regarded “generally safe.” Ingesting propylene glycol antifreeze can cause lack of coordination and might result in seizures, but is unlikely to be fatal.
Signs of toxicity
Treatment: If treatment from a veterinarian is not immediately available;
11. Poison baits
Worldwide, well known poison baits are baits that contain strychnine, sodium fluoroacetate, phosphorus, zinc phosphide, and metaldehyde. These baits are highly palatable and therefore affect scavenging dogs as well.
Many of these substances are or was used in the South African environment for bait to kill jackal and or other predators in farming communities. Having a huge detrimental effect on birds such as vultures and such like scavenger birds.
These poisons are known to be extremely toxic. Will kill an animal in a matter of minutes. Fortunately, it seems that they are better controlled these days and less frequently use. Occasionally, it is being misused. These poisons also have a detrimental persistence in the environment, and has the potential to poison innocent people, pets and children.
11. 1 In all cases, prevent exposure to these products. If ever confronted with these poisons
12. Pyrethrin and Pyrethroids
Pyrethroid is an organic compound comparable to natural pyrethrins. Pyrethroids, for many safety reasons are a popular product in many commercial household pesticides.
Pyrethrin’s have been known for their insecticidal and insect-repellent properties for thousands of years. It is in Literature is described as a class of organic compounds, derived from the Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium plant.
Pyrethrin target the nervous systems of anthropoids and is known for having a very powerful insecticidal activity. Pyrethrin is synthetically constructed by industrial methods. It is naturally found in chrysanthemum flowers which relates it to the description as a safe “organic insecticide”.
Synergists or adjuvants are pharmacological and or immunological agents (in vaccines) that modifies, and enhance the pesticidal outcome or effect of the molecules/agents, such as pyrethrin, they are combined with.
Piperonyl butoxide is such a synergist or an adjuvant. On its own, piperonyl butoxide has no pesticidal activity. Acting as a synergist, it enhances the potency of molecule it is combined or associated with.
Pyrethrin’s are more popular than organophosphates and organochlorides. The latter compounds have shown significant persistent toxic residue and effects to humans.
Pyrethrins is classed as “biodegradable compounds.” It is also preferred above pyrethroids, which is the name of a group of artificial equivalents of pyrethrin that accumulates in the environment.
Pyrethroids have effective insect repellent properties. It is regarded as harmless to mammals and birds in low doses. It can though be harmful to sensitive individuals and are known to be toxic to aquatic organisms.
Pyrethroids are extremely sensitive to sunlight and ultraviolet rays. Its efficacy is eliminated with exposure to the sun within a day or two. When allied though with any suitable environmental residue such as water, it can persevere for some time and contribute to toxicity of the immediate environments.
Some dogs may be adversely affected by that level of pyrethrins.
Signs of toxicity;
Toxicity occurs primarily in small dogs. Death is rare. Simultaneous exposure to organophosphates increases the toxicity of pyrethroids.
13. Arsenic poisoning
Arsenic is known as a “heavy metal”. Heavy metals are found naturally in the earth. They become concentrated because of human activities and enter the body through inhalation, diets, animal consumption and manual handling.
Arsenic is used in herbicides, insecticides, and wood preservatives. Sodium and potassium arsenate are used in ant poisons. Arsenic has a very rapid action and death can occur quickly, even before symptoms are observed. It is used though less these days.
13. 1 Signs of poisoning;
The breath of the dog has a strong garlic odour.
13. 2 Treatment:
Dimercaprol, also called British anti-Lewisite (BAL), is a medication used to treat acute poisoning by arsenic, mercury, gold, and lead. May also be used for antimony, thallium or bismuth poisoning. it is given by injection into a muscle.
Transport the animal to the nearest emergency veterinary facility.
14. Garbage and foodborne poisons
Foodborne illness is also known or referred to as food poisoning. Dogs who scavenge will find garbage, decomposing food as well bacteria infested dead animals.
The incubation period from ingested infected food ranges from hours to days, depending on the infected type of food and on how much was consumed. The incubation period is very misleading as the time since ingestion does not always relate the cause or the symptoms.
Signs appear within a few hours.
Most dogs will eat chocolate, but it can be dangerous. Chocolate is being made from the fermented seeds of the cocoa tree. Cocoa solids are a source of flavonoids and alkaloids, such as theobromine, phenethylamine and caffeine. Chocolate also contains anandamide.
The alkaloid theobromine contains methylxanthines, which is an indirect sympathomimetic drug that is known to constricts blood vessels. Restricted blood vessels mean inadequate oxygen flow to the heart, lungs and reproductive organs.
Theobromine also causes bronchodilation, inhibits peristalsis in the intestines and has diuretic effects, which mean an increase in the production of urine and the excretion thereof. Methylxanthines are not toxic to people in the concentrations found in chocolates and or baked goods. But when ingested by dogs, the effects can be lethal.
There are dogs that tolerate chocolate better than others.
As a rule, dangerous levels of chocolate consumption in dogs would be the following. A dog of;
15.2 Signs of chocolate toxicity
Chocolate poisoning will occur within hours after the dog ingests the chocolate. They include;
16. Fruit and vegetable poisons.
16.1 Raisins and grapes
Possible acute and fatal kidney failure. Dogs will vomit the raisins or grapes within hours, but the damage may already be done. Blood calcium levels will go up and kidney failure will follows
Grape poisoning will cause dogs to stop;
16.2 Macadamia nuts
Dogs eating these nuts will show mild to severe weakness in the rear legs
16.2. 1 Treatment.
Dogs will recover over time, but treatment with activated charcoal accelerates recovery.
Onions have sulphur complexes that can lead to a special type of haemolytic anaemia.
Haemolytic anaemia is a condition or status where red blood cells are ruined or destroyed from the bloodstream. Elimination from the blood stream have many reasons. It could be poisons, blood related illnesses, chemical compounds and or harmful organisms.
Sulphur complexes in onions can cause haemolytic anaemia in a dog. It will then will destroy the blood cells in the blood stream before their functional lifespan is over. Bone marrow will react to the situation. It will reproduce more blood cells when there is a shortage of blood cells in the body.
With haemolytic anaemia, the bone marrow can't reproduce and or replace the needed blood cells fast enough to meet the required or adequate amount the body needs. Haemolytic anaemia leads to many other health issues. Fatigue, physical tiredness, tissue pain, irregular heartbeats, (arrhythmias), enlarged heart, heart failure, poor immune system and susceptibility to various viruses, fungi and bacteria are all consequences of haemolytic anaemia. .
16.3 .1 Treatment
If a dog has swallowed onions, induce vomiting and follow with activated charcoal.
Is an artificial sweetener used by diabetic people and people on diet programs eliminating sugar. Xylitol cause a rapid drop in blood sugar in dogs, resulting in fatal liver damage.
17. Poisonous and hazardous household products
Many household cleaners are corrosive and caustic chemicals (acids and alkalis). These poisons are found in;
18. Petroleum Products.
18.1 Signs of toxicity
Death is by respiratory failure.
19. Heavy metal or toxic metal poisoning
Toxic heavy metal poisoning is any metalloid, known for its potential to harm man and animal and the environment, that is harmful for man and animals. An example would be contaminated water in an in environmental contexts.
Heavy metals are found naturally in the earth. They mainly become concentrated because of human mining activities. Toxic metals can enter plant, animal, and human tissues through direct exposure, inhalation, foodstuffs and manual handling. Heavy metals will interact and bind to functional cells and will hinder vital cellular components.
The toxic effects of arsenic, mercury, and lead have a long history in Literature.
Metal poisoning is an important matter and is listed in the World Health Organisation’s (WHO) list of chemicals.
Heavy metal poisoning is generally treated by the administration of chelating agents. Some of these heavy metal elements regarded as toxic, are contradiction to its poisonous character, essential in small quantities for human and animal health.
19.2 Metals listed as important in public as well as health interest are;
Repeatedly flush the dog’s mouth using a garden hose and lots of water and induce vomiting
20. Aldicarb, Temik or “Two Step” poisoning
Temik, aldicarb or “Two step” poisoning of dogs is perhaps the most common of popular method to poison canines in South Africa.
The illegal use of aldicarb (a carbamate) as a method is one of the most despicable ways to get rid of companion animals. It is important to note that aldicarb poisoning is a serious killing agent and needs immediate and knowledgeable emergency care to ensure a reasonable outcome.
Knowledge and the correct diagnosis of aldicarb poisoning is critical. Treatment depends on
20.2 A muscarinic drug is a substance that blocks the activity of the poison through a complex set of activities in the blood, tissue and nervous systems in the animal.
Successful diagnosis with vomiting, as well as the administration of necessary volumes of activated charcoal would be essential in the prevention of further absorption or aldicarb through the stomach and bloodstream.
20.3 Aldicarb or Temik® is an insecticide and nematicide, registered for agricultural use in South Africa under the Fertilizers, Farm Feeds, Agricultural and Stock Remedies Act (Act 36 of 1947). Only certified farmers are legally able to purchase the product and strict control is enforced regarding the use and storage of the product on farms (Act 36 of 1947)
In South Africa Temik® is sold illegally by informal street traders as a rodenticide called 'Two Step'56 and it is often the cause of accidental poisoning in children and intentional poisoning in adults.
It is estimated that at least 60 % of the aldicarb-containing pesticides used in South Africa for the poisoning of dogs, are illegally smuggled across the border into South Africa from neighbouring countries such as Mozambique and Zimbabwe, where there is a complete lack of agricultural product control. (G H Verdoorn, Griffon Poison Information Centre)
Criminals planning to gain access properties where dogs are present insert aldicarb granules into cheap meat baits, such as sausages, viennas, chicken or polony to kill the dog. Dogs do not have the taste receptors on their tongue, the same as humans do, and that makes dogs vulnerable to aldicarb poisoning in meat.
Aldicarb is according to the World Health Organization classification of pesticides, an extremely toxic substance and is classified as an “extremely hazardous pesticide” (class 1a). The canine oral lethal dose is about approximately 6.5 mg per kg. (Griffin Poisoning Centre, Dr Gerhard Verdoorn)
Mode of action of aldicarb in dogs
Both carbamate and organophosphate pesticides are classified as cholinesterase inhibitors. (A cholinesterase inhibitor is a chemical compound that prevents the enzyme to break down acetylcholine and choline esters that function as neurotransmitters)
20.5 Clinical signs
The clinical appearances of carbamate and organophosphate poisonings are vague from each other.
If a dog therefor shows clinical signs, indicating possible organophosphate or carbamate toxicity, the person dealing with the dog should conservatively assume carbamate poisoning, due to the very high prevalence of malicious misuse of aldicarb in South Africa.
Clinical signs described in Literature include
20.6 Causes of death
Death is caused by respiratory failure due to bronchospasm. Bronchospasm is constriction of the muscles in the walls of the bronchioles. It is caused by the release of substances from mast cells or basophils. It causes difficulty in breathing which can be very mild to severe. Inflamed airways and bronchoconstriction narrows the airways because of wheezing. Bronchospasms is associated with asthma, chronic bronchitis and anaphylaxis, as an effect of the use or intake of drugs, food, medicines, allergic responses to insects.
20.6.2 Paralysis of the diaphragm and Respiratory Centre
Paralysis is loss of muscle function in the diaphragm. The same effect as a person getting his wind knocked out of in contact sports, where diaphragm spasm occurs when sudden force is applied to the abdomen, which puts pressure on the solar plexus, (a complex of nerves located in the abdomen) and intercostal muscles, causing a depression of the respiratory centre, which are a part of the brain stem.
The Respiratory Centre receive governing signals from neural, chemical and hormonal nature. These signals control the;
Intercostal muscles are those group of muscles that runs between the ribs. The assist in the movement of the chest wall are mainly involved in the mechanical aspect of breathing. Injury to these centres due poisoning, may lead to central respiratory failure and death.
There is with aldicarb poisoning not really time to confirm a definite diagnosis of aldicarb poisoning. Dogs vomit unfamiliar food in which the aldicarb granules were concealed. Or food stuffs were found black granules.
21.1 Emergency procedures
Emergency procedures should commence immediately, as in 5 where steps to induce vomiting is being discussed as well as the administrating of activated charcoal.
21.2 Veterinary care
It is essential for a veterinarian to administer atropine as soon as possible. The mortality of clinical cases is high even after speedy treatment. The veterinarian would direct his treatment towards reversing or preventing over-stimulation of the muscarinic receptors that slows the heart rate, increase glandular secretory activity and the stimulation of muscle contractions.
Muscarinic receptor antagonists compete with acetylcholine, (ACh) an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals as a neurotransmitter. ACh is a chemical released by nerve cells, sending indifferent signals to other cells by binding on the muscarinic receptors, changing the normal message to muscarinic receptors.
21.2.1 Muscarinic receptor opponents
The administration of an anti-muscarinic drug such as atropine, is critically important in all cases. Aldicarb over-stimulate the muscarinic receptors and that results in fatal consequences. The acetylcholine muscarinic receptors, changing the normal message to muscarinic receptors cause then bradycardia, (slowing of the heart rate) and bronchospasm, sudden constriction of the muscles in the walls of the bronchioles in the dog’s lungs. It is often life-threatening and need to be treated immediately.
Atropine is well absorbed from all routes of administration, reaching peak effects 3-4 min post intravenous or IV administration
21.2.3 Atropine side effects.
The high doses necessary to treat aldicarb poisoning effectively in dogs may result in neurological complications such as drowsiness, lack of muscle movements, seizures and respiratory depression. Gastro-intestinal side effects include a dry mouth, difficulty in swallowing, constipation and vomiting.
Problem with eyesight may be blurred vision, the dilation or size of the pupil, paralysis of some eye muscles, and photo-phobia, the intolerance of visual perception of light.
Cardiovascular signs, (veins and blood vessels) include rapid heart rates, high blood pressure, irregular heartbeat and rhythms and cardiovascular failure, the inability of the heart to pump and adequate supply of blood.
21.2.4 Potential complications to the dog due to aldicarb poisoning
There could be difficulties with animals saved from aldicarb poisoning.
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Treatment rationale for dogs poisoned with aldicarb (carbamate pesticide)
L F ArnotI,II; D J H VealeIII; J C A SteylII; J G MyburghII,*
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