BLAAS WAT LEK BY TROETELDIERE
1. Inleiding
Troeteldier uriene ruik sleg en is uit ‘n higiëniese oogpunt nie wenslik nie. Uriene in die huis kan weens ‘n gedragsprobleem wees of dit kan ‘n siekteteken wees wat behandel moet word.
2. Faktore van belang
Die spiere van die blaaswand en –klep word met ouderdom swakker en daarom is ouer diere meer geneig om uriene “uit te lek” as hulle slaap. ‘n Ou dier kan soms ook nie gou genoeg opstaan nie of wil nie sy warm slaapplek verlaat nie.
2.1 ‘n Oorvol blaas lei dan tot ‘n lekkasie van uriene. Dit kan ‘n gedragsprobleem wees en die hond moet gereeld uitgeneem word na buite.
2.2 Sterilisasie: Dit is natuurlik dat uriene ook lek by sterilisasie. Daar is baie gou ‘n verbetering indien die teef met vroulike hormone behandel word. Sulke pille is by veeartse beskikbaar en die dosis word slegs een keer per week toegedien. Oordosering met die pille kan veroorsaak dat u teef al die tekens toon van ‘n teef op hitte. Sy kan selfs reunhonde lok. Maak dus seker dat u die instruksies noukeurig volg.
2.3 Sleg-ruikende uriene: Nog ‘n oorsaak van uriene wat erg ruik, is blaas- of nierontsteking. In vele gevalle is dit die irritasie van die kanaal wat veroorsaak dat die hond dikwels klein hoeveelhede uriene uitdruk. Die slegte reuk word veroorsaak deur bakterieë wat in die blaas of niere groei. Daar is net een soort behandeling vir nier- en blaasontsteking, en dit is met antibiotika.
2.4 Nier- en blaasontsteking is baie ernstig, want dit kan tot permanente skade lei. Blaas- en nierstene kom voor by honde en in ‘n vroeë stadium is dit nie baie pynlik nie.
2.5 Kanker wat aan die binnewand van die blaas groei, kan ook ‘n lekkasie veroorsaak.
3. Nierstene
Daar was in die verlede geglo dat die inname van te veel kalsium die ontwikkeling van nierstene verhoog, aangesien die meeste nierstene bestaan uit kalsiumoksalaat. Daar bestaam egter sterk bewyse wat aandui dat lae-kalsium diëte verbind kan word met ‘n hoër risiko van blaas- en nierstene en dat verhoogde kalsium ironies genoeg ‘n laer risiko meebring. Die redes hiervoor lê waarskynlik by die suurgehalte van die uriene.
4. Ander soorte nierstene
Ander soorte nierstene is struwiet (magnesium-, ammonium- en fosfaatbevattende stene), uriensuur, kalsiumfosfaat of sistien (slegs aangetref by sistinurië). Die vorming van struwietstene word verbind met die teenwoordigheid van bakterieë wat ureum afbreek, gewoonlik Proteus mirabilis (ook Klebsiella, Serratia, Providencia spesies) wat ureum kan afbreek na ammoniak, wat ‘n gunstige omgewing skep vir die vorming van struwiet.
‘n Gebrek aan die proteïen “calgranulin” word gereken is die oorsaak vir die vorming van kalsiumoksalaatstene.
Pierre van Niekerk © 2015

BLADDER LEAKING of PETS
1. Introduction
Pets’ urine does not have a ‘nice’ smell and from a hygienic point of view, it is not desirable to find yourself in this situation. Urinating in the house can occur as a result of behavioural issues or it can be a sign of illness which must be treated as soon as possible.
2. Critical factors
The muscles of the bladder wall and valve gets weaker with age and therefore senior animals are more prone to a ‘leaking bladder in their sleep. An older animal can sometimes not move quick enough or has no wish to leave their nice warm bed.
2.1 An over full bladder then leads to leaking of urine. It can become a behavioural problem which must be addressed and the animal taken outside at regular intervals.
2.2 Sterilisation: It is natural for urine to ‘leak’ when an animal is sterilised. Improvement of this condition will be very quick if a female is treated with female hormones. Such medication will be available at your Vet and the dosage is only administered once a week. Over dosage can result in your animal showing signs of being on heat and she can even attract male animals. It is therefore critical that the correct dosage procedure is followed as per instructions.
2.3 Bad smelling urine: Another cause of urine smelling bad, is bladder or kidney infection. In many cases it is the irritation of the canal that causes the animal to express small quantities of urine. The ‘bad’ smell is caused by bacteria growing in the bladder or kidneys. There is only one effective treatment for bladder and kidney infection and that is with antibiotics.
2.4 Kidney and bladder infection is very serious as it can result in permanent damage. Bladder and kidney stones can occur with dogs but in an early stage it is not very painful.
2.5 Cancer growth on the inside of the bladder wall can also cause a ‘leakage’.
3. Kidney stones
It was previously believed that the intake of too much calcium heightens the probability of developing kidney stones as most of them are composed of calcium oxalate. There are, however, strong indications that low calcium diets can be connected with a higher risk of bladder and kidney stones and that increased calcium ironically results in a lower risk. The reason for this probably lies in the acidity of the urine.
4. Other types of kidney stones
Other types of kidney stones are struvite (magnesium-, ammonium- and phosphate containing stones), urine acid, calcium phosphate or cystine (only found with cystinuria – which is a rare inherited autosomal recessive disease that is characterised by stones formed by the amino acid cystine in the kidneys, ureter, and bladder). The formation of struvite stones are connected to the presence of bacteria which breaks down urea, usually Proteus mirabilis (also the Klebsiella, Serratia, Providencia species) which can break down urea into ammoniac, which presents a favourable environment for the formation of struvite.
A lack of the protein “calgranulin” is regarded as the cause of the formation of calcium oxalate stones.
Pierre van Niekerk © 2015

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